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硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料制备与成型工艺的研究进展

刘磊 郭琰 段飞 赵丹阳

刘磊,郭琰,段飞, 等. 硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料制备与成型工艺的研究进展[J]. 机械科学与技术,2023,42(2):267-281 doi: 10.13433/j.cnki.1003-8728.20230074
引用本文: 刘磊,郭琰,段飞, 等. 硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料制备与成型工艺的研究进展[J]. 机械科学与技术,2023,42(2):267-281 doi: 10.13433/j.cnki.1003-8728.20230074
LIU Lei, GUO Yan, DUAN Fei, ZHAO Danyang. Advances in Fabrication and Moulding Process of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Materials[J]. Mechanical Science and Technology for Aerospace Engineering, 2023, 42(2): 267-281. doi: 10.13433/j.cnki.1003-8728.20230074
Citation: LIU Lei, GUO Yan, DUAN Fei, ZHAO Danyang. Advances in Fabrication and Moulding Process of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Materials[J]. Mechanical Science and Technology for Aerospace Engineering, 2023, 42(2): 267-281. doi: 10.13433/j.cnki.1003-8728.20230074

硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料制备与成型工艺的研究进展

doi: 10.13433/j.cnki.1003-8728.20230074
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘磊(1970−),高级工程师,硕士,研究方向为无人机及其发射回收装置设计与研究,liulei@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TQ328.3

Advances in Fabrication and Moulding Process of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Materials

  • 摘要: 硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料凭借其优秀的理化性能和机械性能,广泛应用于国民生产和国防军工等多个领域,具有不可替代的重要作用。同时,随着材料成型技术的进步,又发展出一些性能增强的新型硬质聚氨酯复合材料。本文综述了硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料的原料体系、成型工艺及阻燃聚氨酯泡沫、材料增强方法的最近研究进展,详细分析了异氰酸酯、多元醇和多种纤维和粒子增强材料对硬质聚氨酯泡沫性能的增强机理及影响规律。最后,对硬质聚氨酯泡沫材料的未来研究和发展方向进行了展望。
  • 图  1  水发泡过程异氰酸酯参与的主要反应

    图  2  硬质聚氨酯泡沫浇注成型与喷涂成型示意图

    图中A料为多元醇及助剂混合体系,又称为白料;B料为多异氰酸酯,又称为黑料

    图  3  RIM[1]、RRIM、SRIM工艺的工艺流程示意图

    图  4  不同GF质量分数下RPUF/GF复合材料SEM成像[36]

    图  5  预处理前后碳纤维在聚氨酯基体中的SEM成像预处理后的CF表面有凹槽,与基体结合更紧密[43]

    图  6  用于强化聚氨酯硬泡的异形碳纤维

    图  7  纯RPUF与CNT/RPUF复合材料SEM成像图[70]

    表  1  RIM、RRIM、SRIM工艺比较[21]

    比较项目RIMRRIMSRIM
    增强材料类型 粉末状 网状、纤维状
    增强材料加入方式 预先混入原料 摆放于模腔中
    是否需要计量泵 需要 不需要 需要
    充压气缸 需要 需要 需要
    注射位置 侧面 侧面 模具中心
    原料黏度/(mPa·s) 约2 000 100 ~ 10 000 <500
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-27
  • 刊出日期:  2023-02-25

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